Any chewy grain, such as wheat berries, farro, or even brown rice, can replace the barley.
- 1 cup hulled, hull-less, or pearl barley
- Kosher salt
- 2 shallots, thinly sliced into rings
- ⅓ cup vegetable oil
- 2 tablespoons olive oil
- 8 ounces mushrooms (such as maitake, chanterelle, and/or oyster), torn or cut into large pieces
- Freshly ground black pepper
- 2 sprigs thyme
- 1 garlic clove, crushed
- 3 tablespoons unsalted butter
- 1 cup chopped fresh cilantro
- 1 cup chopped fresh parsley
- 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
- 1½ ounces Parmesan, shaved, plus more for serving
- Cook barley in a medium pot of boiling salted water until tender, 50–60 minutes for hulled or hull-less, 20–30 minutes for pearl. Drain; spread out on a baking sheet and let cool.
- Meanwhile, cook shallots in vegetable oil in a small saucepan over medium-high heat, swirling pan occasionally to keep shallots from burning, until golden brown, 5–7 minutes. Using a slotted spoon, transfer shallots to paper towels to drain; season with salt. Let cool. Set shallot cooking oil aside.
- Heat olive oil in a large skillet over medium-high until just beginning to smoke. Arrange mushrooms in skillet in a single layer and cook, undisturbed, until undersides are golden brown, about 3 minutes. Season mushrooms with salt and pepper, toss, and continue to cook, tossing often and reducing heat as needed to avoid scorching, until golden brown all over, about 5 minutes longer.